Preface Abbreviations Introduction Philosophers of Linguistics Intension vs. extension Logical Syntax as a calculus Real vs. imaginary New signs for new concepts Notes to chapter 1 Scientific approach Pursuing science Scientific approach Observation Hypothesis Experiment Empirical laws Scientific theory Verification Presentation Notes to chapter 2 Prolegomena to formal syntax Formalization A language for description Notes to chapter 3 Formal languages Preliminaries A formal grammar Five example grammars Set theory Chomsky hierarchy Structural descriptions Graph theory A formal metalanguage Notes to chapter 4 Languages of logic Propositional logic Constructing a proof Predicate logic